Acetobacter Xylinum is a type of bacteria with a length of 2 microns, short rod-shaped and has a slimy wall surface. Acetobacter Xylinum in young cell culture are individual cells but when they are old, they will form a tough gelatin-like layer and cover the colony cells. These bacteria have the ability to oxidize acetic acid to H2O and CO2. Acetobacter Xylinum is able to polymerize glucose into cellulose. Henceforth, cellulose will form a matrix known as nata.
Growth of Acetobacter Xylinum
Acetobacter Xylinum is a type of bacteria that undergoes cell growth. These bacteria go through several phases starting from the adaptation phase, the initial growth phase, the exponential phase, the slow growth phase, the steady growth phase, the phase leading to death and the last is the death phase.
- When Acetobacter Xylinum is moved to a new medium, these bacteria will first adapt to their environment. The adaptation phase is generally achieved from 0-24 hours from inoculation
- The initial growth phase generally occurs within a few hours, which is characterized by low-speed cell division. Next, there is an exponential phase that will be achieved between the next 1-5 days.
- For this exponential phase, Acetobacter Xylinum will release as many extracellular polymerase enzymes as possible. The production of this enzyme is useful for compiling glucose polymers into cellulose or eye matrix. This phase is a determinant of the speed of forming nata by Acetobacter Xylinum strains.
- When nutrients are reduced, the growth phase of Acetobacter Xylinum bacteria becomes slow. The growth of Acetobacter Xylinum bacteria becomes slow because there are toxic metabolites. In this phase, growth is no longer stable but the number of dead cells is still less than those that survive.
- The growth phase remains in Acetobacter Xylinum, there will be a balance between dead and living cells. In this phase there is also more nata production.
- The occurrence of the death phase is a result of the nutrients being almost depleted and when the nutrients are completely depleted, Acetobacter Xylinum will experience a death phase.
Acetobacter Xylinum for the environment
The presence of microorganisms, in this case bacteria, can be divided into 3 groups. There are bacteria that are beneficial to humans, bacteria that are harmful and harmful to life.
- For harmful bacteria, it is the type of bacteria that makes food rotten
- Meanwhile, harmful bacteria are types of bacteria that can cause infection and produce toxins
- Beneficial types of bacteria are types of bacteria that provide benefits to humans such as producing useful products.
Acetobacter Xylinum is used in the manufacture of Nata De Coco
Acetobacter Xylinum itself is a useful type of bacteria because it can form nata. Not only Acetobacter Xylinum bacteria which is a type of beneficial bacteria, but there are also lactic acid bacteria that benefit humans in helping to make yogurt and pickles.
As we know, nata de coco is one of the most popular types of drinks. Nata de coco has a shape like a chewy jelly with a clear white or milky white color. This product was originally produced from the Philippines, but along with the popularity of nata de coco, many other countries also produce it, including Indonesia. This drink is made from cellulose compounds or dietary fiber. This compound is produced from the fermentation of coconut water assisted by microorganisms. This fermentation is then known as nata seeds. To get good quality nata de coco, of course you need a good media to support the activity in producing extracellular cellulose or nata de coco.
The process of making Nata De Coco:
- For the manufacture of nata, coconut water used should not be arbitrary and must meet the provisions of the quality standards of manufacture. Use coconut water that has been cooked but not too old or young.
- Prior to the introduction of Acetobacter Xylinum bacteria, the addition of vinegar, nitrogen and carbohydrates is needed to make Acetobacter Xylinum survive.
- The vinegar added to coconut water plays a role in increasing or possibly reducing the level of acidity. A good vinegar to use is acetic acid with an acidity level of 99.8%.
- Making nata de coco does not only use coconut water but can also be skimmed with coconut milk.
- The presence of carbohydrates makes Acetobacter Xylinum bacteria able to form cellulose on a single raw material.
- In addition, Acetobacter Xylinum can also produce cellulose in rice bran because it contains a lot of carbohydrates. Cellulose produced through rice bran can also be used in the manufacture of paper.
With this increasingly advanced development and research, it is hoped that our society can make the best use of it. The existence of bran raw materials can be easily found in Indonesia, by utilizing technology as well as possible, it is hoped that the community can save wood cellulose which until now is widely used to make paper.
Here are a number of other products that use good bacteria for the manufacturing process: